Cosmology has been the object of remarkable progress in the last few decades.
Several fundamental questions, however, remain unanswered on the nature of the Universe, and these pose some of the most pressing problems in fundamental physics today. These open issues include:
- What is the nature of Dark Energy and Dark Matter, which together make up 96% of the energy density of the Universe?
- What are the initial conditions in the early Universe, which seeded the formation structures in the Universe?
- Is Einstein’s theory of general relativity, our current theory of gravity, valid on the largest cosmological scales
To answer these questions, a number of large cosmological surveys are being planned. These surveys will provide deep insights into the unknown ingredients of the cosmological model through measurements of several cosmological probes, such as the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), galaxy redshift surveys, weak gravitational lensing, supernovae and galaxy clusters.