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## Submitted and accepted

Title | Core or cusps: The central dark matter profile of a redshift one strong lensing cluster with a bright central image |
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Authors | Collett, T. E.; Buckley-Greer, E.; Lin, H. et al. |

Publication | submitted 2017 |

### Abstract

We report on SPT-CLJ2011-5228, a giant system of arcs created by a cluster at $z=1.06$. The arc system is notable for the presence of a bright central image. The source is a Lyman Break galaxy at $z_s=2.39$ and the mass enclosed within the 14 arc second radius Einstein ring is $10^{14.2}$ solar masses. We perform a full light profile reconstruction of the lensed images to precisely infer the parameters of the mass distribution. The brightness of the central image demands that the central total density profile of the lens be shallow. By fitting the dark matter as a generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile---with a free parameter for the inner density slope---we find that the break radius is $270^{+48}_{-76}$ kpc, and that the inner density falls with radius to the power $-0.38\pm0.04$ at 68 percent confidence. Such a shallow profile is in strong tension with our understanding of relaxed cold dark matter halos; dark matter only simulations predict the inner density should fall as $r^{-1}$. The tension can be alleviated if this cluster is in fact a merger; a two halo model can also reconstruct the data, with both clumps (density going as $r^{-0.8}$ and $r^{-1.0}$) much more consistent with predictions from dark matter only simulations. At the resolution of our Dark Energy Survey imaging, we are unable to choose between these two models, but we make predictions for forthcoming Hubble Space Telescope imaging that will decisively distinguish between them.

Title | Cosmic Information, the Cosmological Constant and the Amplitude of primordial perturbations |
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Authors | Padmanabhan, T.; Padmanabhan, H. |

Publication | submitted 2017 |

### Element title

A unique feature of gravity is its ability to control the information accessible to any specific observer. We quantify the notion of cosmic information ('CosmIn') for an eternal observer in the universe. Demanding the finiteness of CosmIn requires the universe to have a late-time accelerated expansion. Combining the introduction of CosmIn with generic features of the quantum structure of spacetime (e.g., the holographic principle), we present a holistic model for cosmology. We show that (i) the numerical value of the cosmological constant, as well as (ii) the amplitude of the primordial, scale invariant, perturbation spectrum can be determined in terms of a single free parameter, which specifies the energy scale at which the universe makes a transition from a pre-geometric phase to the classical phase. For a specific value of the parameter, we obtain the correct results for both (i) and (ii). This formalism also shows that the quantum gravitational information content of spacetime can be tested using precision cosmology.

Title | Lensing substructure quantification in RXJ1131-1231: a 2 KeV lower bound on dark matter thermal relic mass |
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Authors | Birrer, S.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A. |

Publication | submitted to Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2017 |

### Abstract

We study the substructure content of the strong gravitational lens RXJ1131-1231 through a forward modelling approach that relies on generating an extensive suite of realistic simulations. The statistics of the substructure population of halos depends on the properties of dark matter. We use a merger tree prescription that allows us to stochastically generate substructure populations whose properties depend on the dark matter particle mass. These synthetic halos are then used as lenses to produce realistic mock images that have the same features, e.g. luminous arcs, quasar positions, instrumental noise and PSF, as the data. By analysing the data and the simulations in the same way, we are able to constrain models of dark matter statistically using Approximate Bayesian Computing (ABC) techniques. This method relies on constructing summary statistics and distance measures that are sensitive to the signal being targeted. We find that using the HST data for \RXJ we are able to rule out a warm dark matter thermal relic mass below 2 keV at the 2$\sigma$ confidence level.

Title | Models of the strongly lensed quasar DES J0408-5354 |
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Authors | Agnello, A.; Lin, H.; Buckley-Geer, L. et al. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2017 |

### Abstract

We present gravitational lens models of the multiply imaged quasar DES J0408-5354, recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) footprint, with the aim of interpreting its remarkable quad-like configuration. We first model the DES single-epoch $grizY$ images as a superposition of a lens galaxy and four point-like objects, obtaining spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and relative positions for the objects. Three of the point sources (A,B,D) have SEDs compatible with the discovery quasar spectra, while the faintest point-like image (G2/C) shows significant reddening and a `grey' dimming of $\approx0.8$mag. In order to understand the lens configuration, we fit different models to the relative positions of A,B,D. Models with just a single deflector predict a fourth image at the location of G2/C but considerably brighter and bluer. The addition of a small satellite galaxy ($R_{\rm E}\approx0.2$") in the lens plane near the position of G2/C suppresses the flux of the fourth image and can explain both the reddening and grey dimming. All models predict a main deflector with Einstein radius between $1.7"$ and $2.0",$ velocity dispersion $267-280$km/s and enclosed mass $\approx 6\times10^{11}M_{\odot},$ even though higher resolution imaging data are needed to break residual degeneracies in model parameters. The longest time-delay (B-A) is estimated as $\approx 85$ (resp. $\approx125$) days by models with (resp. without) a perturber near G2/C. The configuration and predicted time-delays of J0408-5354 make it an excellent target for follow-up aimed at understanding the source quasar host galaxy and substructure in the lens, and measuring cosmological parameters. We also discuss some lessons learnt from J0408-5354 on lensed quasar finding strategies, due to its chromaticity and morphology.

Title | The Einstein-Boltzmann equations revisited |
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Authors | Nadkarni-Ghosh, S.; Refregier, A. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2016 |

### Abstract

The linear Einstein-Boltzmann equations describe the evolution of perturbations in the universe and its numerical solutions play a central role in cosmology. We revisit this system of differential equations and present a detailed investigation of its mathematical properties. For this purpose, we focus on a simplified set of equations aimed at describing the broad features of the matter power spectrum. We first perform an eigenvalue analysis and study the onset of oscillations in the system signalled by the transition from real to complex eigenvalues. We then provide a stability criterion of different numerical schemes for this linear system and estimate the associated step-size. We show how the stiffness of the system can be characterised in terms of the eigenvalues. While the parameters of the system are time dependent making it non-autonomous, we define an adiabatic regime where the parameters vary slowly enough for the system to be quasi-autonomous. We summarise the different regimes of the system for these different criteria as function of wave number $k$ and scale factor $a$. We also provide a compendium of analytic solutions for all perturbation variables in 6 limits on the $k$-$a$ plane and express them explicitly in terms of initial conditions. These results are aimed to help the further development and testing of numerical cosmological Boltzmann solvers.

Title | Integrated Cosmological Probes: Extended Analysis |
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Authors | Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A. |

Publication | submitted to Physical Review D 2016 |

### Abstract

Recent progress in cosmology has relied on combining different cosmological probes. In earlier work, we implemented an integrated approach to cosmology where the probes are combined into a common framework at the map level. This has the advantage of taking full account of the correlations between the different probes, to provide a stringent test of systematics and of the validity of the cosmological model. We extend this analysis to include not only CMB temperature, galaxy clustering, weak lensing from SDSS but also CMB lensing, weak lensing from the DES SV survey, Type Ia SNe and $H_{0}$ measurements. This yields 12 auto and cross power spectra as well as background probes. Furthermore, we extend the treatment of systematic uncertainties. For $\Lambda$CDM, we find results that are consistent with our earlier work. Given our enlarged data set and systematics treatment, this confirms the robustness of our analysis and results. Furthermore, we find that our best-fit cosmological model gives a good fit to the data we consider with no signs of tensions within our analysis. We also find our constraints to be consistent with those found by WMAP9, SPT and ACT and the KiDS weak lensing survey. Comparing with the Planck Collaboration results, we see a broad agreement, but there are indications of a tension from the marginalized constraints in most pairs of cosmological parameters. Since our analysis includes CMB temperature Planck data at $10 < \ell < 610$, the tension appears to arise between the Planck high$-\ell$ and the other measurements. Furthermore, we find the constraints on the probe calibration parameters to be in agreement with expectations, showing that the data sets are mutually consistent. In particular, this yields a confirmation of the amplitude calibration of the weak lensing measurements from SDSS, DES SV and Planck CMB lensing from our integrated analysis.

Title | A halo model for cosmological neutral hydrogen: abundances and clustering |
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Authors | Padmanabhan, H.; Refregier, A.; Amara, A. |

Publication | submitted 2016 |

### Abstract

We extend the results of previous analyses towards constraining the abundance and clustering of post-reionization ($z \sim 0-5$) neutral hydrogen (HI) systems using a halo model framework. We work with a comprehensive HI dataset including the small-scale clustering, column density and mass function of HI galaxies at low redshifts, intensity mapping measurements at intermediate redshifts and the UV/optical observations of Damped Lyman Alpha (DLA) systems at higher redshifts. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to constrain the parameters of the best-fitting models, both for the HI-halo mass relation and the HI radial density profile. We find that a radial exponential profile results in a good fit to the low-redshift HI observations, including the clustering and the column density distribution. The form of the profile is also found to match the high-redshift DLA observations, when used in combination with a three-parameter HI-halo mass relation and a redshift evolution in the HI concentration. The halo model predictions are in good agreement with the observed HI surface density profiles of low-redshift galaxies, and the general trends in the the impact parameter and covering fraction observations of high-redshift DLAs. We provide convenient tables summarizing the best-fit halo model predictions.

Title | Hints against the cold and collisionless nature of dark matter from the galaxy velocity function |
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Authors | Schneider, A.; Trujillo-Gomez, S. et al. |

Publication | submitted 2016 |

### Abstract

The observed number of dwarf galaxies as a function of rotation velocity is significantly smaller than predicted by the $\Lambda$CDM model. This discrepancy cannot be simply solved by assuming strong baryonic processes, since they would violate the observed relation between maximum circular velocity ($v_{\rm max}$) and baryon mass of galaxies. A speculative but tantalising possibility is that the mismatch between observation and theory points towards the existence of non-cold or non-collisionless dark matter (DM). In this paper, we investigate the effects of warm, mixed (i.e warm plus cold), and self-interacting DM scenarios on the abundance of dwarf galaxies and the relation between observed HI line-width and maximum circular velocity. Both effects have the potential to alleviate the apparent mismatch between the observed and theoretical abundance of galaxies as a function of $v_{\rm max}$. For the case of warm and mixed DM, we show that the discrepancy disappears, even for luke-warm models that evade stringent bounds from the Lyman-$\alpha$ forest. Self-interacting DM scenarios can also provide a solution as long as they lead to extended ($\gtrsim 1.5$ kpc) dark matter cores in the density profiles of dwarf galaxies. Only models with velocity-dependent cross sections can yield such cores without violating other observational constraints at larger scales.

Title | The DESI Experiment Part I: Science, Targeting, and Survey Design |
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Authors | DESI Collaboration, Aghamousa, A.; Aguilar, J.; Ahlen, S. et al. |

Publication | submitted 2016 |

### Abstract

DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxies with a median $z\approx 0.2$. In total, more than 30 million galaxy and quasar redshifts will be obtained to measure the BAO feature and determine the matter power spectrum, including redshift space distortions.

Title | The DESI Experiment Part II: Instrument Design |
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Authors | DESI Collaboration, Aghamousa, A.; Aguilar, J.; Ahlen, S. et al. |

Publication | submitted 2016 |

### Abstract

DESI (Dark Energy Spectropic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution $R= \lambda/\Delta\lambda$ between 2000 and 5500, depending on wavelength. The DESI instrument will be used to conduct a five-year survey designed to cover 14,000 deg$^2$. This powerful instrument will be installed at prime focus on the 4-m Mayall telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona, along with a new optical corrector, which will provide a three-degree diameter field of view. The DESI collaboration will also deliver a spectroscopic pipeline and data management system to reduce and archive all data for eventual public use.

Title | Weak-lensing mass calibration of redMaPPer galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data |
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Authors | Melchior, P.; Gruen, D.; McClintok, T.; Varga, T.N.; Sheldon, E., Rozo, E.; Amara, A. et al. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2016 |

### Abstract

We use weak-lensing shear measurements to determine the mean mass of optically selected galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. In a blinded analysis, we split the sample of more than 8,000 redMaPPer clusters into 15 subsets, spanning ranges in the richness parameter $5 \leq \lambda \leq 180$ and redshift $0.2 \leq z \leq 0.8$, and fit the averaged mass density contrast profiles with a model that accounts for seven distinct sources of systematic uncertainty: shear measurement and photometric redshift errors; cluster-member contamination; miscentering; deviations from the NFW halo profile; halo triaxiality; and line-of-sight projections. We combine the inferred cluster masses to estimate the joint scaling relation between mass, richness and redshift, $\mathcal{M}(\lambda,z) \varpropto M_0 \lambda^{F} (1+z)^{G}$. We find $M_0 \equiv \langle M_{200\mathrm{m}}\,|\,\lambda=30,z=0.5\rangle=\left[ 2.35 \pm 0.22\ \rm{(stat)} \pm 0.12\ \rm{(sys)} \right] \cdot 10^{14}\ M_\odot$, with $F = 1.12\,\pm\,0.20\ \rm{(stat)}\, \pm\, 0.06\ \rm{(sys)}$ and $G = 0.18\,\pm\, 0.75\ \rm{(stat)}\, \pm\, 0.24\ \rm{(sys)}$. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is in excellent agreement with the weak-lensing calibration of redMaPPer clusters in SDSS by Simet et al. (2016) and with the Saro et al. (2015) calibration based on abundance matching of SPT-detected clusters. Our results extend the redshift range over which the mass-richness relation of redMaPPer clusters has been calibrated with weak lensing from $z\leq 0.3$ to $z\leq0.8$. Calibration uncertainties of shear measurements and photometric redshift estimates dominate our systematic error budget and require substantial improvements for forthcoming studies.

Title | Update on BINGO 21cm intensity mapping experiment |
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Authors | Battye, R.; Browne, I.; Chen, T.; Dickinson, C., Harper, S. et al. |

Publication | submitted to Proceedings of Recontres de Moriond, La Thuille, 22-29 March 2014 |

### Abstract

21cm intensity mapping is a novel approach aimed at measuring the power spectrum of density fluctuations and deducing cosmological information, notably from the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO). We give an update on the progress of BAO from Integrated Neutral Gas Observations (BINGO) which is a single dish intensity mapping project. First we explain the basic ideas behind intensity mapping concept before updating the instrument design for BINGO. We also outline the survey we plan to make and its projected science output including estimates of cosmological parameters.

Title | Quantitative Evaluation of Gender Bias in Astronomical Publications from Citation Counts |
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Authors | Caplar, N.; Tachella, S.; Birrer, S. |

Publication | submitted to Nature Astronomy 2016 |

### Abstract

We analyze the role of first (leading) author gender on the number of citations that a paper receives, on the publishing frequency and on the self-citing tendency. We consider a complete sample of over 200,000 publications from 1950 to 2015 from five major astronomy journals. We determine the gender of the first author for over 70% of all publications. The fraction of papers which have a female first author has increased from less than 5% in the 1960s to about 25% today. We find that the increase of the fraction of papers authored by females is slowest in the most prestigious journals such as Science and Nature. Furthermore, female authors write 19$\pm$7% fewer papers in seven years following their first paper than their male colleagues. At all times papers with male first authors receive more citations than papers with female first authors. This difference has been decreasing with time and amounts to $\sim$6% measured over the last 30 years. To account for the fact that the properties of female and male first author papers differ intrinsically, we use a random forest algorithm to control for the non-gender specific properties of these papers which include seniority of the first author, number of references, total number of authors, year of publication, publication journal, field of study and region of the first author's institution. We show that papers authored by females receive 10.4$\pm$0.9% fewer citations than what would be expected if the papers with the same non-gender specific properties were written by the male authors. Finally, we also find that female authors in our sample tend to self-cite more, but that this effect disappears when controlled for non-gender specific variables.

Title | Another baryon miracle? Testing solutions to the "missing dwarfs" problem |
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Authors | Trujillo-Gomez, S.; Schneider, A. et al. |

Publication | submitted 2016 |

### Abstract

No explanation exists so far for the observed dearth of dwarf galaxies in the local universe compared to the large number of dark matter halos predicted by $\Lambda$CDM. Although attempts have been made to attribute the discrepancy to observational systematics, this would require an extreme modification of the density profiles of haloes through baryonic processes. In this paper we perform a systematic evaluation of the uncertainties affecting the measurement of DM halo abundance using galaxy kinematics. Including observational systematics and modelling uncertainties, we derive the abundance of galaxies as a function of maximum circular velocity --a direct probe of mass-- from the observed line-of-sight velocity function in the Local Volume. This provides a direct means of comparing the predictions of theoretical models and simulations (including nonstandard cosmologies and novel galaxy formation physics) to the observational constraints. The new "galactic $V_{max}$" function is steeper than the line-of-sight velocity function but still shallower than the theoretical CDM VF, showing that some unaccounted physical process is necessary to reduce the abundance of galaxies and/or drastically modify their density profiles compared to CDM haloes. Using this new galactic $V_{max}$ function, we investigate the viability of baryonic solutions such as photoevaporation of gas from an ionising background as well as stellar feedback. However, we find that the observed relation between baryonic mass and $V_{max}$ places tight constraints on the maximum suppression from reionisation. Neither energetic feedback nor photoevaporation are effective enough to reconcile the disagreement. This might point to the need to modify cosmological predictions at small scales.

Title | Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in DES Science Verification Data |
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Authors | Prat, J.; Sanchez, C.; Miguel, R.; Kwan, J.; Blazek, J., Bonnett, C.; Amara, A. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2016 |

### Abstract

We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited (iAB<22.5) sample of galaxies selected from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias b and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields r in each bin, using scales above 4 Mpc/h comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering (Crocce et al. 2016) and CMB lensing (Giannantonio et al. 2016) for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al. (2016), while, in the lowest redshift bin (z∼0.3), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. (2016). Our results are found to be rather insensitive to a large range of systematic effects. We measure b⋅r to be 0.87±0.11, 1.12±0.16 and 1.24±0.23, respectively for the three redshift bins of width Δz=0.2 in the range 0.2<z<0.8, defined with the photometric-redshift algorithm BPZ. Using a different code to split the lens sample, TPZ, leads to changes in the measured biases at the 10-20% level, but it does not alter the main conclusion of this work: when comparing with Crocce et al. (2016) we do not find strong evidence for a cross-correlation parameter significantly below one in this galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin (z∼0.3), where we find r=0.71±0.11 when using TPZ, and 0.83±0.12 with BPZ, assuming the difference between the results from the two probes can be solely attributed to the cross-correlation parameter.

Title | Line-of-sight effects in strong lensing: Putting theory into practice |
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Authors | Birrer, S.; Welschen, C.; Amara, A.; Refregier, A. |

Publication | submitted to Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2016 |

### Abstract

We present a simple method to accurately infer line of sight (LOS) integrated lensing effects for galaxy scale strong lens systems through image reconstruction. Our approach enables us to separate weak lensing LOS effects from the main strong lens deflector. We test our method using mock data and show that strong lens systems can be accurate probes of cosmic shear with a precision on the shear terms of ±0.003. We apply our formalism to reconstruct the lens COSMOS 0038+4133 and its LOS. In addition, we estimate the LOS properties with a halo-rendering estimate based on the COSMOS field galaxies and a galaxy-halo connection. The two approaches are independent and complementary in their information content. We find that when estimating the convergence at the strong lens system, performing a joint analysis improves the measure by a factor of two compared to a halo model only analysis. Furthermore, the constraints of the strong lens reconstruction lead to tighter constraints on the halo masses of the LOS galaxies. Joint constraints of multiple strong lens systems may add valuable information to the galaxy-halo connection and may allow independent weak lensing shear measurement calibrations.

Title | Constraining the X-ray AGN halo occupation distribution: implications for eROSETA |
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Authors | Singh, P.; Refregier, A.; Majumdar, S.; Nath, B. B. et al. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2016 |

### Abstract

The X-ray emission from active galactic nucleus (AGN) is a major component of extragalactic X-ray sky. In this paper, we use the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and halo occupation distribution (HOD) formalism to construct a halo model for the X-ray emission from AGNs. Verifying that the two inputs (XLF and HOD) are in agreement with each other, we compute the auto-correlation power spectrum in the soft X-ray band (0.5-2 kev) due to the AGNs potentially resolved by eROSITA mission and explore the redshift and mass dependence of the power spectrum. Studying the relative contribution of the Poisson and the clustering terms to the total power, we find that at multipoles $l\lesssim 1000$ (i.e. large scales), the clustering term is larger than the Poisson term. We also forecast the potential of X-ray auto-correlation power spectrum and X-ray-lensing cross-correlation power spectrum using eROSITA and eROSITA-LSST surveys, respectively, to constrain the HOD parameters and their redshift evolution. In addition, we compute the power spectrum of the AGNs lying below the flux resolution limit of eROSITA, which is essential to understand in order to extract the X-ray signal from the hot diffuse gas present in galaxies and clusters.

Title | Searching for Cosmic Strings in CMB Anisotropy Maps using Wavelets and Curvelets |
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Authors | Hergt, L.; Amara, A.; Brandenberger, R. et al. |

Publication | submitted in 2016 |

### Abstract

We use wavelet and curvelet transforms to extract signals of cosmic strings from cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy maps, and to study the limits on the cosmic string tension which various ongoing CMB temperature anisotropy experiments will be able to achieve. We construct sky maps with size and angular resolution corresponding to various experiments. These maps contain the signals of a scaling solution of long string segments with a given string tension $G \mu$, the contribution of the dominant Gaussian primordial cosmological fluctuations, and pixel by pixel white noise with an amplitude corresponding to the instrumental noise of the various experiments. In the case that we include white noise, we find that the curvelets are more powerful than wavelets. For maps with Planck specification, we obtain bounds on the string tension comparable to what was obtained by the Planck collaboration. Experiments with better angular resolution such as the South Pole Telescope third generation (SPT-3G) survey will be able to yield stronger limits. For maps with a specification of SPT-3G we find that string signals will be visible down to a string tension of $G \mu = 1.4 \times 10^{-7}$.

Title | Constraints on the evolution of the relationship between HI mass and halo mass in the last 12 Gyr |
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Authors | Padmanabhan, H.; Kulkarni, G. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2016 |

### Abstract

The neutral hydrogen (HI) content of dark matter haloes forms an intermediate state in the baryon cycle that connects the hot shock-heated gas and cold star-forming gas in haloes. Measurement of the relationship between HI mass and halo mass therefore puts important constraints on galaxy formation models. We combine radio observations of HI in emission at low redshift ($z\sim 0$) with optical/UV observations of HI in absorption at high redshift ($1<z<4$) to derive constraints on the evolution of the HI-mass halo-mass (HIHM) relation from redshift $z=4$ to $z=0$. We model the evolution of the HIHM relation in a manner similar to that of the stellar-halo mass (SHM) relation. Combining this parameterisation with a redshift- and mass-dependent modified Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile for the HI density within a halo, we draw constraints on the evolution of the HIHM relation from the observed HI column density, incidence rate, and clustering bias at high redshift. We find that the peak HI mass fraction moderately increases from 1% at $z=0$ to about 3.1% at $z=4$. The corresponding halo mass increases from $10^{11.7}$ M$_\odot$ to $10^{12.4}$ M$_\odot$. The data do not suggest a strong evolution in the HI density profile. Predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with the observed column density distribution and incidence rate of high-column-density HI absorption-line systems at high redshift, although the agreement is poor with the column density distribution at $z=0$. The increase in the halo mass with maximum HI mass fraction also enables the model predictions to successfully match the measured clustering bias of high column density HI systems at $z=2.3$. We discuss the resultant evolution of the HIHM relation and its consequences for HI and galaxy evolution.

Title | Baryonic effects on weak-lensing two-point statistics and its cosmological implications |
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Authors | Mohammed, I.; Martizzi, D.; Teyssier, R.; Amara, A. |

Publication | submitted to Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 2014 |

### Abstract

We develop an extension of \textit{the Halo Model} that describes analytically the corrections to the matter power spectrum due to the physics of baryons. We extend these corrections to the weak-lensing shear angular power spectrum. Within each halo, our baryonic model accounts for: 1) a central galaxy, the major stellar component whose properties are derived from abundance matching techniques; 2) a hot plasma in hydrostatic equilibrium and 3) an adiabatically-contracted dark matter component. This analytic approach allows us to compare our model to the dark-matter-only case. Our basic assumptions are tested against the hydrodynamical simulations of Martizzi et. al. (2014), with which a remarkable agreement is found. Our baryonic model has only one free parameter, $M_{\rm crit}$, the critical halo mass that marks the transition between feedback-dominated halos, mostly devoid of gas, and gas rich halos, in which AGN feedback effects become weaker. We explore the entire cosmological parameter space, using the angular power spectrum in three redshift bins as the observable, assuming a Euclid-like survey. We derive the corresponding constraints on the cosmological parameters, as well as the possible bias introduced by neglecting the effects of baryonic physics. We find that, up to $\ell_{max}$=4000, baryonic physics plays very little role in the cosmological parameters estimation. However, if one goes up to $\ell_{max}$=8000, the marginalized errors on the cosmological parameters can be significantly reduced, but neglecting baryonic physics can lead to bias in the recovered cosmological parameters up to 10$\sigma$. These biases are removed if one takes into account the main baryonic parameter, $M_{\rm crit}$, which can also be determined up to 1-2\%, along with the other cosmological parameters.